The Negro Leagues Database Blog
This week we add the 1936 Negro National League to the Seamheads Negro Leagues Database. The season started with a major defection: the Chicago American Giants, founding members of the league back in 1933, and the oldest continuously existing professional club in black baseball (dating back to 1911), decided to go independent in 1936. Most of their best players jumped ship and signed with league teams: Turkey Stearnes, Larry Brown, and Jack Marshall went to the Philadelphia Stars, Willie Wells and Mule Suttles to the Newark Eagles, Alex Radcliff to the New York Cubans. To take their place, the American Giants brought in a number of younger players, including a 19-year-old Ted Strong. Along with the Kansas City Monarchs (still stubbornly independent), the Cincinnati Tigers, and a new version of the St. Louis Stars, the American Giants were laying the foundations for a new western league, one that would get started in 1937.
Meanwhile, back east the Negro National League suffered from even more instability, though it may have come out stronger in the end. The cellar-dwelling Newark Dodgers of 1935 folded, and the franchise was bought up by Abe Manley of the Brooklyn Eagles. He merged the two teams and created the Newark Eagles, which would become one of the best-known franchises of the later Negro leagues. The Elite Giants left Columbus for Washington, D. C ., their third home in three years. And in mid-season the Black Yankees, who had successfully resisted the lure of league play for five years, finally joined the Negro National League.
The 1936 season saw the swan song of the great Pittsburgh Crawfords. While the team would continue past 1936, this season would bring its last championship. Satchel Paige (6-1, 2.72, 57 Ks in 53 innings) was back in the fold. At first base manager Oscar Charleston started phasing in a promising youngster, Johnny Washington (.375/.435/.538), but Oscar could still swing the bat a little himself (.344/.459/.639) when he was needed. The bulk of the offense, of course, rested on the broad shoulders of Josh Gibson (.347/.455/.719).
The competition was actually quite tight. The Crawfords opened up an advantage on the rest of the league despite only outscoring their opponents by 22 runs. The previous year’s runners up, the New York Cubans, dipped a little in 1936. Their standout player was (no surprise) player-manager Martín Dihigo (.346/.452/.705). The Homestead Grays fielded a very similar team to its 1935 edition, with very similar results (though young pitchers Edsall Walker and Roy Welmaker would pay dividends in the future). The Philadelphia Stars dropped to the bottom of the league, although they weren’t that much worse than the 1935 team that had finished over .500. Stearnes (.327/.391/.500), Roy Parnell (.374/.414/.481), and Jud Wilson (.309/.392/.496) hit as well as they usually did, but the pitching was poor, as Slim Jones (2-2, 7.62) continued his slide into oblivion.
Next up for the DB: the 1926 Eastern Colored League, which should arrive pretty shortly.
The 1936 Cincinnati Tigers: gearing up for the Negro American League.
The latest addition to the Seamheads Negro Leagues DB covers the 1920/21 winter league season in Cuba. Heading the bill that off-season was none other than the biggest name in baseball at the time, one George Herman Ruth, fronting the New York Giants.
The Babe was a little late, showing up only for the last half of the Giants’ schedule against Habana and Almendares (see his passport application here). Most famously, this series saw Ruth get upstaged by Cuban slugger Cristóbal Torriente, who smashed three home runs in one game (albeit these were off George Kelly, not normally a pitcher) while Ruth went hitless. Torriente also added a double off Ruth himself, driving in six runs as Almendares beat the Giants 11 to 4. It wasn’t until Ruth’s seventh game that he finally provided the Cuban fans with a home run. The Babe ended up hitting well for the series anyway (.345/.525/.828), and the Giants won 9, lost 4, and tied 4, despite only outscoring their opponents 69 to 62.
The Giants left Havana in mid-November, and their place was taken by the Atlantic City Bacharach Giants of the Negro leagues. The team’s trip was organized by its secretary, Edward B. Lamar, for many years a well-known promoter in black baseball circles and founder of the Cuban X-Giants. Lamar was actually the instigator of the first trips to Cuba by black American teams in the 20th century, sending his X-Giants to Havana several times in the 1900s. For this trip the Bacharachs brought the core of their regular team, captain and ace pitcher Dick Redding, shortstop Dick Lundy, pitcher Red Ryan, and catcher Julio Rojo, and added superstar Oscar Charleston and infielder Morten “Specs” Clark from the Indianapolis ABCs, slugger Charlie Blackwell and infielder Joe Hewitt from the St. Louis Giants, and a trio of stars from the Hilldale Club, catcher Louis Santop, spitballer Phil Cockrell, and fancy-fielding first baseman Toussaint Allen. Oliver Marcell, the Bacharachs’ star third baseman, also applied for a passport, but for some reason did not make the trip.
Guided by Cuban Stars manager Tinti Molina, the Bacharachs played a (pretty unsuccessful) six-game series with Habana and Almendares, then it was decided to enter them as the third club in the regular Cuban League season. The league used a split-season format. On December 26 Almendares player-manager Dolf Luque argued with the umpire during a game with Habana and pulled his team off the field, and then Almendares refused to show up for a game the next day against the Bacharachs. Luque was suspended and Almendares forfeited both games, but the Blues, led by Cheo Hernández (4-1, 1.62), shortstop Pelayo Chacón (.321/.418/.410), and left fielder Merito Acosta (.281/.410/.406), managed to overcome these problems to win the first half. In addition to his three-homer game against the Giants, center fielder Torriente (.306/.398/.482) set a Cuban League record by legging out three triples in one game on January 12.
The Bacharachs couldn’t really get untracked, and lagged well behind in last place, despite the efforts of Charleston (.471/.514/.500), Blackwell (.367/.472/.433), Clark (.350), and Santop (.343). They finished the first half with a 5-11 record (including the forfeit win over Almendares). After losing the opening game of the second half, the Bacharachs dropped out of the league. Inspired by second baseman Bienvenido “Hooks” Jiménez (.310/.412/.425), infielder/outfielder Manuel Cueto (.283/.383/.359), and pitchers Oscar Tuero (5-3, 1.81) and José Acosta (5-2, 1.94), Habana won six out of the eight remaining games to take the second half title and set up a best-of-three championship series.
In the playoffs, the Reds spotted Almendares one win (a three-hit shutout by Luque), then won the last two to take the pennant.
1920 passport photos for Dick Lundy, Babe Ruth, and Oscar Charleston.
Check out the newest addition to the Negro Leagues DB: the 1935 Negro National League season.
The defending champion Philadelphia Stars fell off quite a bit in 1935, partly because several of their key performers (Biz Mackey, Chaney White) were aging, but mostly because their ace, 1934’s 20-game winner Slim Jones, couldn’t stay away from the bottle. His strikeout rate was cut in half, and he won only 4 league games. Despite the efforts of the 39-year-old first baseman Jud Wilson (.344 with 14 doubles and 8 homers), the Stars finished just 34-31.
The previous year’s other playoff team, the Chicago American Giants, fared even worse, though problems with 1934’s statistical record make it a little hard to tell exactly what went wrong. The Big Four—Turkey Stearnes (.403/.490/.649), Willie Wells (.362/.451/.584), Mule Suttles (.298 with a league-leading 8 home runs), and Willie Foster (4-2, 2.35)—continued to play brilliantly. Bad years by Ted Trent (2-8, 4.37) and Wilson Redus (.181) might have been part of the problem.
The Nashville Elite Giants tried to move to Detroit, but couldn’t secure a home park. They wound up in Columbus, Ohio. Unfortunately the local papers didn’t carry many box scores, so less than half (24 out of 49) of the Elite Giants’ league games are included in the DB. Even so, it’s clear that stars Sammy T. Hughes (.360) and Roy Parnell (.337) continued to hit well, and that rookie outfielder Zollie Wright (.395) was seriously impressive.
Three marginal teams from 1934 (the Bacharach Giants, Cleveland Red Sox, and Baltimore Black Sox) dropped out of the league. They were replaced by the former powerhouse Homestead Grays and two new New York City clubs: the Brooklyn Eagles, playing in Ebbets Field, and the New York Cubans, who took up residence in Harlem’s refurbished Dyckman Oval.
The Grays had still not recovered from the Crawfords’ player raids of several seasons before, and finished in seventh place despite the contributions of first sacker Buck Leonard (.389/.455/.624), rookie second baseman Matthew Carlisle (.382/.440/.632), and catcher Tommie Dukes (.372/.449/.562), and the pitching of ace Ray Brown (8-5, 3.26).
The Brooklyn Eagles fared a little better, despite starting the season under the shadow of controversy: veteran manager Ben Taylor put in all the work to assemble and train the team, but was fired early in the season, apparently just to get his salary off the payroll. He later sued the team over the way he was treated. His replacement, first baseman George Giles, guided the Eagles to a 31-30 record with the help of infielder Harry Williams (.340), outfielder Ed Stone (.327), and a pitching staff led by the 39-year-old New England legend Will Jackman (7-8, 6.03) and the 18-year-old sensation Leon Day (6-4, 4.56).
But the most successful of the new teams was undoubtedly the New York Cubans, organized by Alex Pompez on his return from a five-year absence from baseball. Player-manager Martín Dihigo pitched (3-1, 2.77) and played six other positions, batting .321 with 7 home runs. The ageless Alejandro Oms (.377) anchored the outfield, the youngster Lázaro Salazar provided additional offense (.341), and lefty Luis Tiant and rookie right hander Schoolboy Johnny Taylor (both 5-3) pitched well enough for the Cubans to edge the second-half title.
That put them on course to meet the first-half champion Pittsburgh Crawfords in the playoffs. The Crawfords had just missed the 1934 postseason, despite fielding one of the most talented teams in Negro league history. In 1935 they lost Satchel Paige, who absconded to North Dakota to play independent ball for the racially integrated Bismarck club (late in the season he made a couple of appearances for the Kansas City Monarchs against the American Giants). But they still had Josh Gibson (.348/.425/.578), Sam Bankhead (.355/.425/.523), Cool Papa Bell (.331), and newcomer Pat Patterson (.389/.417/.597), not to mention lefty Leroy Matlock. In games with box scores Matlock went 7-0 in the regular season (and 1-1 in the playoffs); in games without box scores he won at least 6 more games without a known defeat, making him at least 13-0 for the year in Negro league games (14-1 counting the playoffs).
When the Cubans and Crawfords clashed in September, it resulted in another classic blackball postseason series. The Cubans stunned Pittsburgh with two quick wins behind lefthanders Frank Blake and Neck Stanley. In game 3 Leroy Matlock shut out the Cubans, 3 to 0, with manager Oscar Charleston contributing a home run, but in the next game his opposite number, Martín Dihigo, beat the Crawfords 6 to 1 at Greenlee Field to put his team ahead 3 games to 1.
In game 5 Roosevelt Davis managed to edge Frank Blake, 3 to 2. The last two games were played in Philadelphia. With the Cubans leading 5 to 3 in the seventh inning of game 6, Dihigo put himself in to pitch. The Cubans added one more run, stretching their lead to 6 to 3, but the Crawfords rallied in the bottom of the ninth. Oscar Charleston smashed out a three-run home run to tie the game. Pat Patterson followed with a double, and Judy Johnson rapped out a pinch-hit single to win the game for Pittsburgh.
The deciding game saw a back-and-forth struggle for seven innings. In the top of the eighth inning Dihigo brought in Taylor to relieve Tiant, and the first two men to face him, Gibson and Charleston, hit back-to-back homers. Two walks and two outs later, Cool Papa Bell, with men on first and third, hit a sharp grounder to Dihigo, who was playing third. Dihigo fumbled the ball, allowing Sam Bankhead to score. The Crawfords were up, 8 to 4.
The Cubans got one run back in the bottom of the eighth, then in the ninth Clyde Spearman hit a two-run homer to bring the score to 8 to 7—but that was as close as they could get. For the first (and only) time the Pittsburgh Crawfords had won the unambiguous, undisputed championship of the Negro National League.
The 1935 Pittsburgh Crawfords, champions of the Negro National League